Upcoming in Estonian Journal of Military Studies, the journal of the Estonian National Defense College (ENDC) By Yevhen Fedchenko ABSTRACT This article traces the evolution of Russian propaganda as part of active measures from Soviet times through Russian occupation of Crimea and the war against Ukraine in Donbas as the climax in use of propaganda and media manipulations. Fakes and forgeries are a part of active measures conducted by the Kremlin and amending its military capacity and diplomacy efforts to cover it up. The manufacturing of fakes is characterized by centralized and systematic approach to manufacturing and distribution of fakes, their coherence and connection with the Kremlin policies and talking points. The article concludes that the use of media-related active measures is not a new phenomenon and was widely used by Soviet Union before as an instrument for conducting its foreign policy by clandestine means. Through examination of more than 500 items from Russian
Source: Kremlin Propaganda: Soviet Active Measures by Other Means – 3/21/2016.